Conversion of hazelnut shell into value-added chemicals by using sub-critical water as a reaction medium
tarafından
 
Gözaydın, Gökalp, author.

Başlık
Conversion of hazelnut shell into value-added chemicals by using sub-critical water as a reaction medium

Yazar
Gözaydın, Gökalp, author.

Yazar Ek Girişi
Gözaydın, Gökalp, author.

Fiziksel Tanımlama
xi, 85 leaves:+ 1 computer laser optical disc.

Özet
The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, acid concentration and acid type on the hydrothermal conversion of waste hazelnut shell into value-added chemicals under hot compressed water with high temperature/high pressure autoclave. The other aim is to gaining of added value and new utilization field to waste hazelnut shell. This is the first study about the degradation of waste hazelnut shell in order to produce levulinic acid under subcritical water in literature. Reactions were performed at 150-280 °C of reaction temperature, 15-120 min of reaction time with different acid (H2SO4 and H3PO4) concentrations that was varied from 0 to 125 mM. The liquid product distribution was evaluated with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas products were identified by Gas Chromatography with a Thermal Conductivity Detector (GC-TCD). While levulinic acid, acetic acid and furfural were identified as a major liquid compounds, the main gaseous products were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Increasing reaction temperature and reaction time improved the conversion of hazelnut shell up to 65.40% at 280 °C and 120 min in the presence of 50 mM H2SO4 and 13.05% of levulinic acid yield was obtained under the similar reaction conditions. Addition of dilute H2SO4 and H3PO4 in the reaction medium enhanced different product formation. H2SO4 treatment promoted the production of levulinic acid whereas addition of H3PO4 increased the formation of furfural. Furthermore, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and possible reaction pathways of hydrothermal conversion of waste hazelnut shell was evaluated.

Konu Başlığı
Biomass chemicals.
 
Nut products.
 
Hazelnuts.

Yazar Ek Girişi
Yüksel Özşen, Aslı

Tüzel Kişi Ek Girişi
İzmir Institute of Technology. Chemical Engineering.

Tek Biçim Eser Adı
Thesis (Master)--İzmir Institute of Technology: Chemical Engineering.
 
İzmir Institute of Technology: Chemical Engineering--Thesis (Master).

Elektronik Erişim
Access to Electronic Versiyon.


LibraryMateryal TürüDemirbaş NumarasıYer Numarası
IYTE LibraryTezT001553TP248.B55 G72 2016